Dc Generator components and its working principle

Let us various components of DC generator:

Yoke : 
  • Yoke provides mechanical support for the poles.
  • It acts as a protecting cover for the whole machine.
  • It also provides the path for the magnetic flux produced by the poles.
Armature : 
  • It is a coil wound in an iron core.
  • This is the main part which generates the EMF in a generator develops torque in a motor.
Lugs :

  • Lugs are used to tap rotor winding connections to the commutator.
Brushes : 
  • The brushes will collect current from commutator.
  • They are made of carbon or graphite.
  • Brushes are housed in brush holders.
  • The brushes are made to bear down on the commutator by a spring.
  • The tension of the spring can be adjusted by changing the position of lever in the notches.
  • A flexible copper pigtail mounted at the top of the brush conveys current from the brushes to the holder.
Shaft :
  • It's a long iron stem.
  • It holds the the pole armature assembly.
Commutator :
  • Commutator facilitates collection of current from the armature conductors.
  • It converts the alternating EMF induced in  the armature into uni-directional (DC ) current in the external circuit.
  • It periodically reverse the current in an electric motor or electrical generator.
Stator : 
  • It is the stationary part of the DC generator.
  • It comprises of field coils, poles and pole shoes.
  • The coil which energizes is known as the field coil or field winding.
Bearing :
  • A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically rotation or linear movement.
Lets know about working principle of DC Generator :
  • Dc generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  • The mechanical energy is supplied by prime mover which refers to diesel engine which is mechanically coupled with generator.
  • As the prime mover rotates the armature cuts the magnetic flux and dynamically induced EMF is produced in it.
  • This EMF  causes the DC current to flow out of the generator.
  • The DC current generated is taken by the generator using a brush setup.
  • DC current is passed through the controller which monitors the charge level of battery.
  • From the controller the DC current is stored in a battery bank.
  • An invertor is used to convert the DC current into alternating current.
  • Finally the output current is used for house hold appliance.


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