# FREE SURFACE EFFECT

*What is free surface effect and what is its impact on the ships stability when the ship is listed?*- If a tank is completely filled with the liquid, the liquid cannot move and acts as a static weight.

- So, the centre of gravity of the ship remains unchanged.
- The graphic shows the listed ship when the tank is filled with liquid.

- Assume that the ship floats at the same draft with the same
**KG**and with the tank partially filled.

- Now, if the ship lists, the liquid flows to the lower side causing
**G**of the liquid to shift to**G1.**

- This result in the centre of gravity of the ship
**G**moving**G1**.

- This effect is called a
**free surface effect**.

- As a result, the vessels suffers an apparent loss of
**GM**which is equal to**GGv**and hence the metacentric height is**GvM**. **GZ**, the righting lever is also reduced by an amount which is equal to**GG1.**

- In order to indicate whether FSC has been applied or not the
**GM**before subtracting FSC is called solid**GM**. - The
**GM**attained after applying FSC is called a fluid**GM**. - In all stability calculation, you will use fluid
**GM**.

**Points to remember**

- If the area of the free surface is constant, the weight of liquid in the tank does not affect the FSC.
- Within the ship, the position of the tank does not affect the FSC.
- When a tank is either empty or full, FSC is zero.
- To reduce the total FSC for the ship, the number of slack tanks must be kept to a minimum since the FSC of each slack tank contributes to the total FSC for the ship.
- By fitting longitudinal division in the tank equally spaced, the FSC can be reduced to 1/n2 times the undivided value, n=number of spaces. E.g: 3 spaces are produced by 2 longitudinal divisions and the FSC reduces to 1/9th value of undivided tank.
- FSC will make the situation worse before the bottom weight increases to a sufficient level to bring G down, if time is taken to decide and start filling a DB tank to improve stability. The smallest tank on the lowest side should be filled first, if the ship is at an angle of loll.

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