Static stresses and Dynamic stresses of a ship

Static stresses


  • Longitudinal bending stresses could be caused while loading the ship in still water.
  • Hogging is a stress that causes the ship's hull or keel to bend upwards at amidships.
  • Look at the effect when the load concentration is more on the ends of the vessel.
  • The ship structure bend downwards at the end.


  • When load concentration is more at the centre, the structure tends to bend downwards in the middle.
  • This action is called sagging.
  • The vessel is designed with the certain allowable maximum bending moment and shear forces which are tabulated in the approved ship's stability booklet.
  • The loading and distribution of weights will be monitored by chief officer of the vessel according to the prescribed limits with the help of a load indicator and stability booklet.
  • He is responsible for minimizing this 'SAG' and 'HOG' of the vessel.

Water pressure:

Act on the sides and bottom of the ship.
If the ship's sides are not strengthened, it will tend to bend inwards, as shown.


  • When the ship is in a dry dock, a ship's sides are no longer supported by water pressure.
  • The only things holding the ship are keel blocks, bilge blocks and side shores.
  • The result is that the sides of the ship tend to bulge outwards and the bottom tends to sag.
  • To counteract drydocking stress, the entire bottom of a ship is strengthened.

Localised stress: 

  • When a heavyweight is loaded over a small area or if there is a concentration of weight in a particular area, it causes localized stresses.
  • Localized stress is counteracted by extra strengthening.

Dynamic stresses

Panting stress:

  • Fluctuation in water pressure causes in and out movement of a ship's side plating at bow and stern.
  • This movement results in panting stress.
  • It is more pronounced at the bow, which pushes the bow ahead into the water or swell.
  • This stress is compensated by fitting panting beams with a distance of two metres between every alternate frames.

  • The panting beams are connected to the frames by beam knees and supported by a wash plate at the Centre.
  • Side stringers, in line with panting stringers, are fitted throughout this deep framing region.
  • Breast hooks fitted to support the radiused stem plate and to prevent in and out movement of the side shell.

Pounding stress:

  • Pounding stress occurs at the bottom plating of a ship near the bow during excessive pitching.
  • To compensate slamming down of a ship's bottom, outer bottom plating is thickened and connections to inner shell and inner bottom girder are strengthened.

  • The thickness of plates near the pounding is increased by thirty percent and transverse frame spacing is reduced from nine hundred millimeters; to seven hundred millimetres.
  • Solid floors fitted at every frame space are welded to the bottom shell and transverse floors are fitted at alternate frames.

Racking stress:

  • When a ship rolls in a seaway, there is a tendency for the ship's side to get deformed.
  • This deformation is caused when the deck moves laterally relative to the bottom structure.
  • This in turn causes the side shells to move vertically relative to each other.
  • Such deformation is called racking stress.

  • This stress is more pronounced on the corners of the ship due to wave action on the hull.
  • Racking stresses are reduced by fitting beam knees and tank side brackets.
  • But the most effective way to resist racking is to fit transverse bulkheads.

No comments

Powered by Blogger.