Wetted surface area of a ship

There are many formulae that give an approximate value of Wetted Surface Area based on the ship's dimensions and draught.

The following three formulae are the most commonly used.
Assume that,
S= wetted surface area (ft²)
V = underwater volume (ft³)
L = length between perpendiculars (ft)
W = displacement (tons)
d = mean draft (ft)
▽ = volume of displacement in ft³

Haslar formula: S = V2/3 x (3.3+L/(2.09 X V¹/3)}
Taylor's formula: S = 15.5 X √(Vx L)
Denny's formula: S = (1.7Ld) + (V / d)

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